Wednesday, March 18, 2020
How To Pronounce Divisive How To Pronounce Divisive How To Pronounce Divisive By Maeve Maddox A reader has called my attention to the changing pronunciation of divisive: I am very active in politics and frequently watch television programs which feature political topics.Ã One of THE most frustrating- and very common- mispronunciations I hear is with the word divisive.Ã I was taught that it is pronounced with a long i on the second syllable- ie: resulting in it having the same, long i sound as the word divide. Many seemingly well-educated and otherwise intelligent people pronounce it with a short i sound on the second syllable.Ã I have checked my hard-copy dictionaries, and they all back up my pronunciation of the word. Am I so backward that I missed out on a revolutionary new way to pronounce this word?Ã If not, why do so many people pronounce it incorrectly?Ã Do they believe it makes them appear cool- or part of an exclusive club- or something?!Ã Do you know when- and why- this trend started? The reader hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t missed any new ruling on how to say divisive. The standard pronunciation is still with a long i in the second syllable: di-VY-siv. Charles Elster (The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations) devotes two cantankerous pages to the misguided Ã¢â¬Å"short-iÃ¢â¬ divisive, establishing the credentials of the Ã¢â¬Å"long-iÃ¢â¬ pronunciation by citing various dictionaries. He remarks that the first time he noted the nonstandard pronunciation in the context of politics was in 1989 in G. H. W. BushÃ¢â¬â¢s inaugural address. Within fifteen years, Ã¢â¬Å"the erroneous pronunciation,Ã¢â¬ as Elster calls it, had begun to infect otherwise careful speakers, including Robert Siegel, cohost of NPRÃ¢â¬â¢s All Things Considered, who twice said [di-VIH-siv] during an interview that aired on August 30, 2004. Elster suggests that the short-i pronunciation may have what he labels Ã¢â¬Å"the my-pronunciationÃ¢â¬â¢s-better-than-yours appealÃ¢â¬ for some individuals, but that careful speakers will continue to pronounce the second syllable of divisive with a long i. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:"Based in" and "based out of"50 Nautical Terms in General Use50 Plain-Language Substitutions for Wordy Phrases
Monday, March 2, 2020
Homework Invention and Transformation Key Points Invention of Homework: Who Is to Blame and Did He Hate Students That Much? Probably every student sitting over fill-in test sheets, verb lists or math problems has wondered at least once who designed the after-school learning process a.k.a. homework and why he did it. Obviously not for the love of science and learning, since such loads of homework just overburden students and make them sleepy and tired all the time. But why, then? Because students were too loud and nasty and so it was a kind of punishment to make them learn even at home? Or because a teacher was lazy, busy or absent and so students had to catch up with the curricula on their own? Well, the history of homework is not that dramatic or mysterious, but it does contain some useful insights that can benefit both students and teachers. A Bit of History Although no source provides clear mentioning of homework through the long history of education up to the 19th century, it is most probable that it existed in this or that form all along the way. Doing observations, composing verses and speeches in rhetoric in the antiquity, memorizing prayers and Biblical texts in the middle ages, acquiring knowledge about the natural world from books and from nature in times of the Industrial revolution Ã¢â¬â it all required work beyond classroom walls. Besides, methods of teaching and available supplies before the invention of the printing press meant that most things had to be learned by heart. So information was either copied from valuable books or from teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s voice and learned after classes, or learned in class through chanting and mnemonic tools, thus being homework done in class. Some cite Marcus Quintilian, a famous Roman orator and teacher, as a first person to explicitly assign homework, but there is no clear written evidence for it. However, Quintilian was a first humanist teacher who focused on the needs of child and benefits of early education, so his influence is recognized today even without reference to homeworking. The appearance of the printing press meant that books were made available to a much wider audience, and so opportunities to make kids study after classes efficiently became wider. Fiction and non-fiction literature of early modernity sometimes mention children learning their lessons after classes to be able to recite them in class on the next day. Thus homework was in full bloom long before the thorough overhaul of education in the 19th century and the establishment of a truly comprehensive and standardized educational system. Homework Timeline In the 19th century and closer to the 20th century needs of developing economy and advances in child psychology and physiology meant that educational approaches and beliefs had to be reconsidered if they were to prepare kids for the life in new conditions. Class time was limited and standardized, a content of study aligned all across the country and made more practical, teachers were certified and the outcome of education was also outlined in measurable terms. Learning was to be intense, but class time could not host all information and activities anymore. Thus homework became an important part of education, but it also became regulated and quantified, relying not only on memorization but on independent work and creativity as well. The name of Roberto Nevilis is sometimes connected to the history of homework but he cannot be credited with inventing something that actually existed long before. It is possible that he was the first to put forward a scientific foundation for how to assign homework, but we will never know it for sure. Nevertheless, the real value and proper rationing of homework were being tested and adjusted well into the 1930s, when an explosion in psychological studies helped understand educational needs of children and how they can be nurtured and supported, not destroyed, by homework. Namely, there are benchmarks that differentiate useful homework from a homework dispensed as a punishment: Educationally useful homework is feasible (i.e. practically sound and accomplishable) It is not excessively large and difficult (part of feasibility) It is dispensed when students are independent enough to study without a teacher. These are basic requirements that apply to any kind of homework. Thus when students claim that they cannot cope with homework load because it consumes all their time it means that the first two commandments of good homework are breached and its benefits rapidly decline. But how does homework work? It is not a pun, there are scientific explanations of the process of knowledge acquisition that do point to the necessity of homework. Read them through, and you will never doubt the necessity of homework as such. Today no one doubts that proper homework helps to consolidate the freshly acquired knowledge and provides an opportunity to work independently and to find out what pace and methods of learning work out for every particular student. Thus good homework targets at achieving these goals and at enabling students to get the maximum of benefits from every topic studied. in class, the material is newly acquired and comprehended. Everything happens in time-pressed manner, where after learning new topic students are to take tests, do exercises or engage in some other unrelated kind of activities because the curriculum is wide and time is scarce; to get a better understanding of material repetitive reading and analysis are required, and they can happen out of class only. So reading and analyzing at home improves understanding and internalizing of knowledge; scholarly concepts can be tricky to grasp in class on the go, so at home, where nothing distracts and time permits, their assimilation and memorization happen more easily and naturally; memorization cannot happen immediately, every student has their own memory capacities, and what one remembers immediately, the other can memorize only after reading it a dozen times; what is repeated at time intervals and rehearsed at home is learned much better than something learned in the classroom only; homework gives time and space to be creative, to come up with new ideas, play with them, research, and so on. So indeed it is a tool of boosting creativity and independence. But we will remind again, all these good things happen only when homework is feasible and limited in time. If all free time of students is consumed by learning only, the benefits of homework turn into downsides. Besides, when assigning homework teachers and instructors need to take into consideration that acquisition and internalization of material happen through various kinds of activities, not only through reading and writing. The learning process includes several stages: initial perception understanding of perceived concepts consolidation formation of skills application of skills in practice. Every mentioned stage needs its own methods of work, and teachers are to select combinations of these methods to include into homework so that every aspect of the learning process was involved and activated. It is a complex task indeed, but if performed properly, homework turns from a nightmare into a cool journey full of discoveries and wonders. Genuine Goals of Homework Believe it or not, but homework was not created out of spite towards naughty students. It was born out of necessity and proved its value across continents and times. Different countries apply different standards in regard to the amount of homework. There were times when this load was on the rise, then the tide receded and kids had more freedom, now the high tide of a home task is back again. But no matter where properly measured and diversified homework enables students to do more than in class and to do so in comfort: students can plan their work as they want they can study without someone assessing them they do not have to haste or put a stop in the middle of a sentence to turn the test in they choose the pace and rhythm they use all the sources they need. Thus home task supports the academic activities performed in the class and provides space for more activities that help students know more and study better. Indeed, they memorize the stuff learned in class, revise and refresh in memory previously learned things and consolidate and apply newly acquired skills. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the goal of a good education, and homework is an integral part of the path towards it. But in addition to these purely academic benefits, homework develops in students more general life-saving skills: responsibility, self-planning and will basics of self-education research and information evaluation skills, use of various sources information processing capacities (analysis, synthesis, hypothesizing, analogy, etc.). These primary and secondary goals and benefits can all be achieved Ã¢â¬â and are achieved Ã¢â¬â under a proper application of homework and its types. Combination of different varieties of assignments is a key to helping students learn and not killing their curiosity. But what are these types? Optimal Types and Scopes of Homework Types of homework are the same as types of work in class, and so a combination of several of them makes home learning not so boring and more effective: Initial acquisition of information from textbooks/lectures Written exercises Oral exercises Memorization exercises Creative tasks Large written projects Craft projects Lab work, experiments, field work. Each kind of work is valuable in itself, but when put together in moderate amounts and diversified, they work wonders when assigned for home performance. If you need any kind of the above-mentioned tasks, just let us know and you will get the A-grade assignment completed as fast as you need it. Homework and Improved Education: Mission Possible? So whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the conclusion? It looks obvious now that canceling homework is implausible and senseless since it will hurt the educational process. After receiving information in class students need to consolidate it, refresh in memory and apply in practice. It all can be done successfully at home only when time permits and a student is relaxed. If all conditions of good homework are met, it will work wonders for studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ skills and grades. And of course, it is wrong to believe, as some teachers do, that homework is a way to discipline kids and teach them time management. It is not. It is neither a punishment nor a mechanical tool of oppression. It is a valuable addition to the class time that helps students learn better and learn more. But teachers should understand this role of homework and organize it properly and reasonably, in the first place. In other words, they should learn their lesson.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
You can make a topic - Research Paper Example Today, however, its message has changed. In his article, Ã¢â¬Å"How Hip Hop holds Blacks backÃ¢â¬ , John McWhorter expresses his concern at the more primal effects of the present day Hip Hop music. McWhorter starts his article by detailing an experience he had at a restaurant in Harlem where he witnessed teenage African American boys behaving in an unsocial manner. Not only do the boys play loud music, shout and hurl food about, they also disregard the female manager of the restaurant who asks them to leave. They only move out of the restaurant when a male security guard asks them sternly to leave. McWhorter points out that this attitude is the product of the music that is favored by the teenagers. Hip Hop today is filled with messages that denigrate women and encourage the scorning of authority figures. It has in the past been dubbed as an Ã¢â¬Å"angryÃ¢â¬ type of music (McWhorter 9). This is because its artists are never calm when performing it. There are no Ã¢â¬ËcalmÃ¢â¬â¢ Hip Hop songs. Hip Hop artists are characterized by the fact that they shout their music and make angry or antisocial gestures that in another era would have been viewed as encouraging social strif e. This music is popular with teenagers because they find a place where they can express their inwardly-held angst at changes they are experiencing that are uncomfortable without being judged. However, McWhorterÃ¢â¬â¢s point of contention is that whereas the youth of other ethnicities move on and leave Hip Hop behind as they become surer of themselves, African Americans, particularly the men, embrace Hip Hop as a lifestyle. This has resulted in the infantilization of African American men and the near collapse of the entire community. Today, there are 30 and 40 year old men such as Jay Z and P Diddy, who are glorified by the Black American community for refusing to grow up and become responsible citizens (McWhorter 9). According to McWhorter, when young Black teenagers see how these
Sunday, February 2, 2020
MBTI personal reflection paper - Assignment Example It enables an individual evaluate the effects of personality on leadership styles within the organization. From the results obtained from the MBTI, I learned that self- assessment can foster a person to identify his leadership behavior. The ESTJs has strengths and weaknesses, which are commonly important to concentrate on before taking any position. From the assignment results, ESTJs have strengths that include honest, loyal, friendly, and direct. Individuals with ESTJ personality traits are conservatively based on their perceptions, and they are contented with expressing their views. Besides, individuals with such traits are also direct in the fact that they like concentrating on real things and providing immediate solutions to the problems. They are commonly dedicated to their work, and they ensure that any tasks are not abandoned and are completed as they remain the right thing to perform. They are strong-willed in the fact that they stick to their own beliefs and defend their ideas relentlessly, and their principles are proven clearly. To justify the strengths of ESTJs, I can use my personal experience. I realized that I am hard working, direct and honest, a project organizer, make tough decisions and presentin g constructive criticism, and meet deadlines and goals. In relation to my hard working personality trait, I ensure that I bring all people together in the community especially during the celebration of cherished local events and in defense of traditional values that can hold families and communities together. During my high school education, I also liked being direct and honest while talking with friends and other people. Even though people with ESTJ personality type are comfortable with the organization structure, they also try to inflict changes that might affect the firm. They also impose tough opinions and ideas to other people working within the
Saturday, January 25, 2020
The Efficacy of Lithium in Treating Bipolar Disorder Lithium is a psychotropic drug that became available in 1970 as a mood stabilizing medication for the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. It has been shown to reduce the frequency and severity of manic states, as well as the depression that is concomitant with bipolar disorder. Much research has been done in the short duration of lithium's employment to evaluate its efficacy and side effects. As stated above, "Lithium stabilizes the mood of a bipolar patient, preventing a relapse into either mania or depression" (Kalat, 2004, p.472). Bipolar disorder (also known as manic- depressive illness), is characterized by the presence of the following symptoms: motor hyperactivity, flight of ideas, elation, a diminished need for sleep, grandiosity, poor judgment, aggressiveness, and possible hostility (FDA, 2005, 4). Manic-depressives are recognized by their constant mood swings, wherein they may be overly euphoric, subsequently becoming rapidly irritable, sad, or hopeless. A person is experiencing a depressive episode if five or more of the following symptoms are experienced for most of the day, every day, for at least two weeks: difficulty concentrating, loss of interest in sex or formerly enjoyed activities, a lasting empty mood, decreased energy, difficulty making decisions, chronic pain that is not caused by physical injury, and recurring thoughts of death or suicide (MedicineNet, 2005, 3). A manic episode is diagnosed if a person displays three or more the following symptoms for most of the day, every day, for one week or more: increased energy and restlessness, extreme irritability, distractibility, unrealistic beliefs i... ... Increased Lethargy Somnolence Weakness Confusion, drowsiness Gross confusion Unsteady balance Gross ataxia Profound loss of balance Nausea Vomiting Urinary incontinence Decreased Slurred speech Random muscle twitching concentration Worsening hand Muscle twitching Coma tremor Diarrhea Note. From Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Bipolar Disorder (p.48), by Monica Ramirez Basco and A. John Rush, 1996, New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Conclusion At this point in time, it is not known exactly how lithium alleviates the symptomatology of bipolar disorder, only that it is highly effective and will be continue to be one of the primary treatments in alleviating bipolar disorder until new remedies are discovered.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Statement of Facts Funtime, Inc manufactures videogames machines. Funtime, Inc encountered decline in profits as a result of the modernized technology. To offset the decline in profits the management team focused on manufacturing economics and increased production by developing an incentive program for production managers whose contribution allowed for an increase in the amount of units produced and a decrease in its cost. The production management team improved manufacturing by increasing the number of completed units beyond normal production levels.To put together the videogame machines the assembly group required parts from the printed circuit boards (PCH) and the reading heads (RH). To achieve increased production, the parts were not carefully produced which resulted in the rejection of the parts that were not tested and modified to meet manufacturing standards. The preventive maintenance that would have been used was postponed and only emergency repair was being carried out to k eep production going.As a result of the pressure on the production group to focus on their machine there was machine downtime in the PCH and RH groups along with the demand for the parts led to more parts being rejected. Analysis Based on FuntimeÃ¢â¬â¢s newly implemented incentive program, which rewards managers for increased output and cost savings, expectations were to see an increase in output and cost savings. Numbers on the contribution report show how the incentive program is working thus far. It can be seen in the table below that the goal of increasing output is being achieved as output is 200 units over budget.Despite the increased output, the goal of decreasing cost is failing thus far. There is an unfavorable contribution margin variance to budget of $58,660. The components that are driving that unfavorable contribution margin variance are in the analysis below. Direct Materials The first component of the unfavorable contribution margin is direct materials. The contribu tion report shows that direct materials has an unfavorable variance of $40,400. Funtime uses three different material types to build the video game units. A closer look at how efficient the housing units, printed circuit boards, and the reading heads are being used can be ound in the tables below. The first table shows the actual cost that Funtime is paying for the three types of direct material versus what the standard rate says they should be paying. The housing units shows no variance between the actual cost and the standard cost but both the printed circuit boards and the reading heads are both showing an unfavorable variance totaling $13,900. To obtain their goal of increasing production levels the PCB and RH groups have begun rejecting parts that in the past would have been tested and modified to meet standards and then be used in production.Rejecting the parts and bringing in new ones is proving to increase production levels but at the same time costing Funtime $13,900 more i n direct materials than they should be paying for the month of May. The direct material usage analysis gives a picture of how many materials are being used to produce the 2,200 units of output. Using the usage table below Funtime used a total of 2,200 housing units, 4,700 printed circuit boards, and 9,200 reading heads. In the direct material usage table it is seen how those actual units compared to how many units really should have been used.Just like in the direct material cost table housing units had no variance but printed circuit boards and reading heads have an unfavorable variance. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s shown that 300 more printed circuit boards and 400 more reading heads were used than should have been. This is in line with previous analysis that due to the rushed production more PCBs and RHs are being purchased because of the high rejection rate. Direct Labor The next component that is helping to cause the unfavorable contribution margin is the direct labor cost.Just like in direct m aterial there are three different types of direct labor at Funtime and those include: assembly, printed circuit boards, and reading heads. Similar tables were used to look at the efficiency of direct labor as were used to look at direct materials. The table below shows the actual hours worked for each group versus the standard hours that should have been worked. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s seen that for the assembly group there was no variance but the PCB and RH groups both had negative variances. Because of the pressure to increase production, preventative maintenance on the machines was postponed causing machines to break down.This in turn caused abnormal machine downtime resulting in employee idle time that required the use of overtime. This explains the unfavorable variance in direct labor hours amongst the PCB and RH groups. With the requirement to work overtime hours Funtime will have to pay higher overtime rates. The table below shows us the actual rates paid versus the standard rates that s hould have been paid. As expected PCB and RH groups have an unfavorable rate variance while Assembly has a favorable variance. This caused Funtime to pay $4,860 in direct labor cost over the standard cost.Sales The last component of the unfavorable contribution margin is the variance in sales and sales price. Looking back at the contribution report it is seen that despite output and sales having favorable variance revenue actually has an unfavorable variance. This can be tied directly to sales price per unit. The table below shows clearly that Funtime is selling their product at a discount and is losing money. Funtime is selling each unit for $20 dollars less than what was budgeted for. In May they lost $44,000 for selling each unit at $20 below budget.Looking strictly at units sold in the table below it can be seen that Funtime has a favorable sales volume variance. Although they had a favorable variance, it was not enough of a favorable variance to help offset the revenue they are losing by selling each unit at a discount. This analysis clearly shows there are three main components causing the unfavorable contribution margin in the month of May. A closer look at the direct material and direct labor tables shows that the PCB and RH groups are foregoing efficiency to increase production.Because of the shift in resources from testing and modifying parts to increasing production it has resulted in just rejecting the parts altogether which is driving up direct labor cost. As well the shift in resources away from maintenance on the machines to increasing production has caused the machines to breakdown often. This has caused much employee downtime resulting in overtime hours being worked which is the main driver in the unfavorable direct labor costs. And lastly the analysis showed that Funtime is selling each unit at a discount to what the budgeted price should have been.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
A. Personally, I think that the biggest social issue in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society is substance abuse. Substance abuse is a dependence on an addictive substance, such as alcohol or drugs. These addictive substances can have very serious effects and come with risky consequences when using. Using and abusing substances can lead to both short and long term effects to your health. Short term effects can include increased heart rate, tremors, mood changes and dizziness. In high dosages the effects can be even greater and last long term, long term effects can be heart attacks, strokes and potential coma. I think that substance abuse is such a big issue today because the number of users is dramatically increasing as time goes on, we are unable to get control over this horrible social issue. I truly believe that almost every community in America is affected by substance abuse and/or addiction. Substance abuse can also lead to other major social problems, such as drunk driving, violence, stress a nd abuse. Substance abuse is such a major problem when it comes to public health and safety. B. Currently, views about drug abuse and dependence have gotten to be a much more complex problem regarding treatment programs. I think that implementing some sort of treatment plan or therapy may be the first step to recovery. However, there are multiple steps that go into what may seem like a simple plan. These treatment plans will include engagement, assessment, multiple system approach to individualizedShow MoreRelatedSubstance Abuse And Alcohol Abuse2545 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pageschildren start to experiment with drugs and alcohol. 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